NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 Industries

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 Industries contain solutions to the exercises given in the Geography book Resources and Development. These answers have been explained in a manner that you will easily understand all the concepts and get your doubts cleared without even seeking anyone’s assistance. You can read and download all the questions and answers in PDF format.

Class 8 Geography Industries Ncert Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1. Answer the following questions.

(i) What is meant by the term ‘industry’?

Answer: Industry refers to an economic activity concerned with the production of goods, extraction of minerals and the provision of services like the tourism industry.

(ii) Which are the main factors which influence the location of an industry?

Answer: The main factors that influence the location of industry include the availability of raw materials, land, water, labour, power, capital, transport, and market. Industries are situated where some or all of these factors are easily available. Additionally, the government may provide incentives like subsidized power, lower transport costs, and other infrastructure to encourage industries to locate in backward areas.

(iii) Which industry is often referred to as the backbone of modern industry and why?

Answer: The iron and steel industry is called the backbone of the modern industry. This is because almost everything we use is either made of iron or steel or has been made with tools and machinery of these metals. This industry is basically the feeder industry, whose products are the raw materials for other industries.

(iv) Why did cotton textile industry rapidly expanding Mumbai?

Answer: The rapid expansion of the cotton textile industry in Mumbai is due to factors like the availability of raw cotton, skilled labour, port facilities for export, and access to domestic and international markets.

(v) What are the similarities between information technology industry in Bengaluru and California?

Answer: Similarities between information technology industry in Bangalore and California:

  • Presence of high-quality educational institutions, and advanced scientific and technological centres
  • A pleasant climate and clean environment.
  • Presence of good quality, skilled workforce.
  • Access to markets.
  • Well-developed and well-connected.

Question 2. Tick the correct answer.

(i) Fort Gloster is located in

(a) West Bengal
(b) California
(c) Gujrat

Answer: (a) West Bengal

(ii) Which one of the following is a natural fibre?

(a) nylon
(b) jute
(c) acrylic

Answer: (b) Jute

Question 3. Distinguish between the followings.

(i) Agro-based and mineral based industry

Agro-based industry  Mineral-based industry
Uses plant and animal products as raw materials.  Uses mineral ores as raw materials.  
Source of employment for people in rural areas.  Source of employment for people in rural as well as urban areas.  
Examples: Iron and steel industry, heavy machinery industry.  Example: Iron and steel industry, heavy machinery industry.  

(ii) Public sector and joint sector industry

Public-sector industry  Joint-sector industry
Owned and operated by the government.  Jointly owned and operated by the government and individuals or a group of individuals.  
Example: Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, Steel Authority of India Limited.  Example: Maruti Udyog Limited.  

Question 4. Give two examples of the following in the space provided:

(i) Raw Materials: _____________ and _____________________

Answer: Iron ore and Cotton

(ii) End products: _______________ and _________________________

Answer: Steel and Cloth

(iii) Tertiary Activities: ________________ and __________

Answer: Transport and banking

(iv) Agro-based Industries: ____________ and ____________

Answer: Dairy and Sugar

(v) Cottage Industries: ___________ and ________________

Answer: pottery and basket weaving

(vi) Co-operatives: ______________________ and _____________

Answer: Mother Dairy and Anand Milk Union Limited (Amul)