NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Civics Chapter 5 Outcomes to Democracy

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Civics (Political Science) Chapter 5 Outcomes to Democracy latest edition help students to score good marks in the exams. These NCERT Solutions are prepared by expert teachers based on the latest NCERT book pattern. Here we have provided answers to all the questions in a very easy language.

Class 10 Civics Chapter 5 Outcomes to Democracy Questions and Answers


Question 1: How does democracy produce an accountable, responsive and legitimate government?

Answer: Democracy creates an accountable, responsive, and legitimate government by empowering citizens to scrutinize and examine the decision-making process. This ensures that decisions are made transparently and adhere to established norms and procedures, enhancing their acceptability. Additionally, democracy gives people the right to elect their government, implying that the elected representatives are viewed as capable of fulfilling the demands of the people.


Democracy produces an accountable, responsive, and legitimate government through several key mechanisms:

  1. Right to Choose Rulers: Democracy ensures that people have the right to choose their rulers. This is typically exercised through regular, free, and fair elections.
  2. Control Over Rulers: In a democracy, the people retain control over their rulers. This control is exercised through various mechanisms like electoral processes and legal frameworks.
  3. Citizen Participation in Decision Making: Democracy allows, and often encourages, citizen participation in decision-making processes, especially in matters that directly affect them.
  4. Accountability and Responsiveness: A democratic government is accountable to its citizens. It is expected to operate transparently and be responsive to the needs and expectations of the populace.

Question 2: What are the conditions under which democracies accommodate social diversities?

Answer: Democracies accommodate social diversities by various methods:

  1. Implementing processes to manage social group competition, reducing potential conflicts.
  2. Encouraging respect for diverse groups and creating mechanisms to negotiate differences.
  3. Ensuring that governance involves working with minority groups and that majority rule does not favour one community over others.
  4. Ensuring that the rule by majority doesn’t turn into dominance by a particular religious, racial, or linguistic community.
  5. Guaranteeing every citizen the chance to be part of the majority at some point, preventing permanent dominance of any one group.

Question 3: Give arguments to support or oppose the following assertions:

(i) Industrialised countries can afford democracy but the poor need dictatorship to become rich.

Answer: The statement “Industrialised countries can afford democracy but the poor need dictatorship to become rich” is not true because

  • Economic development depends more on a nation’s resources, policies, and ability to attract investment rather than its form of governance.
  • If dictatorships inherently led to wealth, countries like Nigeria and Myanmar which are under dictatorial rule, would have been more prosperous. Their struggles indicate that dictatorship does not automatically equate to economic success.
  • While democracy may not directly accelerate industrial growth, it offers other benefits like political stability and respect for human rights, contributing indirectly to a conducive environment for economic development.

(ii) Democracy can’t reduce inequality of incomes between different citizens.

Answer: Democracy can’t reduce inequality of incomes between different citizens. This statement is incorrect because

  • Democracies have the ability to implement progressive economic policies which can directly address income inequality.
  • Democratic systems empower citizens, including marginalized and lower-income groups, to elect representatives who can advocate for policies that reduce income disparities.
  • Democracies tend to promote policies that encourage inclusive economic growth, ensuring that the benefits of development are shared more equitably among the population.
  • In democratic societies, civil society organizations, advocacy groups, and free media can pressure the government to address income inequality and hold leaders accountable for their actions.

(iii) The government in poor countries should spend less on poverty reduction, health, education and spend more on industries and infrastructure.

Answer: The statement “The government in poor countries should spend less on poverty reduction, health, education and spend more on industries and infrastructure” is not true because

  • Investments in health and education are crucial for the long-term holistic development of a country.
  • While infrastructure and industries are important, neglecting basic needs can lead to unsustainable economic growth.
  • Direct investment in poverty reduction, health, and education can lead to a decrease in poverty levels, which in turn can create a more productive workforce and a larger consumer base.
  • Spending on social sectors like health and education promotes social stability and equity, which are vital for maintaining peace and order – prerequisites for economic growth.
  • Education and health are investments in human capital that yield long-term benefits for the economy, often more sustainable than short-term industrial growth.

(iv) In a democracy, all citizens have one vote, which means that there is an absence of any domination and conflict.

Answer: The statement is not completely true because

  • Even though all citizens have one vote in a democracy, it doesn’t automatically eliminate power imbalances.
  • Wealthy individuals and groups can exert disproportionate influence through media and campaign financing, thus affecting the democratic process and leading to potential domination.
  • Democracies often witness various forms of social conflicts based on class, ethnicity, religion, etc. The mere presence of equal voting rights does not resolve these underlying tensions.
  • Democracy based on majority rule can sometimes lead to the marginalization of minority groups, creating a form of majority domination.
  • In any democracy, the diversity of interests and opinions inherently leads to conflicts and negotiations, which are natural and essential parts of the democratic process.

Question 4: Identify the challenges to democracy in the following descriptions. Also suggest policy/institutional mechanism to deepen democracy in the given situations:

(a) Following a High Court directive, a temple in Orissa that had separate entry doors for Dalits and non-Dalits allowed entry for all from the same door.

Answer: Challenge to Democracy: The situation in the Orissa temple, where Dalits and non-Dalits had separate entry doors, highlights the challenge of social discrimination based on caste, a deep-rooted issue in Indian society. This practice goes against the democratic principle of equality and undermines social justice and inclusivity.

Policy/Institutional Mechanisms to Deepen Democracy:

  • Strengthening and strictly enforcing laws that prohibit discrimination on the basis of caste, ensuring penalties for violations.
  • Implementing educational and awareness programs to change societal attitudes and prejudices towards caste-based discrimination.
  • Developing policies that promote inclusivity in public spaces and institutions, ensuring equal access and opportunities for all citizens, irrespective of caste.
  • Enhancing the representation of Dalits and other marginalized communities in decision-making bodies.

(b) A large number of farmers are committing suicide in different states of India.

Answer: Challenge to Democracy: The issue of a large number of farmers committing suicide in different states of India poses a significant challenge to democracy. It highlights systemic problems such as inadequate support for the agricultural sector, financial distress, lack of access to credit, and insufficient safety nets for farmers. This situation reflects the failure of democratic institutions and policies to address the needs of a vital part of the population.

Policy/Institutional Mechanisms to Deepen Democracy:

  • Implement comprehensive policies to support the agricultural sector, including fair pricing, subsidies, and access to modern technology.
  • Enhance access to affordable credit for farmers to reduce their dependence on high-interest loans from informal sources.
  • Introduce and expand crop insurance schemes to protect farmers against the uncertainties of crop failure.
  • Focus on overall rural development, including infrastructure improvement, education, and healthcare, to improve the quality of life for farmers.

(c) Following allegation of killing of three civilians in Gandwara in a fake encounter by Jammu and Kashmir police, an enquiry has been ordered.

Answer: Challenge to Democracy: The allegation of killing three civilians in a fake encounter by Jammu and Kashmir police and the subsequent inquiry highlights the challenge of abuse of power and human rights violations. This situation raises concerns about the rule of law and accountability of law enforcement agencies, which are fundamental to a democratic society.

Policy/Institutional Mechanisms to Deepen Democracy:

  • Ensure a strong and independent judiciary that can investigate and adjudicate such cases without bias or influence.
  • Implement comprehensive police reforms to improve accountability, training, and oversight, emphasizing human rights and ethical conduct.
  • Maintain transparency in the inquiry process, allowing public scrutiny and media coverage to ensure fairness.
  • Foster community policing initiatives to build trust between the police and local communities.
  • Foster community policing initiatives to build trust between the police and local communities.

Question 5: In the context of democracies, which of the following ideas is correct − democracies have successfully eliminated:

A.  conflicts among people
B.  economic inequalities among people
C. differences of opinion about how marginalised sections are to be treated
D. the idea of political inequality

Answer 5: D. the idea of political inequality

Question 6: In the context of assessing democracy which among the following is odd one out. Democracies need to ensure:

A.  free and fair elections
B.  dignity of the individual
C.  majority rule
D. equal treatment before law

Answer: C. majority rule

Question 7: Studies on political and social inequalities in democracy show that

A. democracy and development go together
Β. inequalities exist in democracies
C. inequalities do not exist under dictatorship
D. dictatorship is better than democracy

Answer: a) inequalities exist in democracies

Question 8: Read the passage below:

Nannu is a daily wage earner. He lives in Welcome Mazdoor Colony, a slum habitation in East Delhi. He lost his ration card and applied for a duplicate one in January 2004. He made several rounds to the local Food & Civil Supplies office for the next three months. But the clerks and officials would not even look at him, leave alone do his job or bother to tell him the status of his application. Ultimately, he filed an application under the Right to Information Act asking for the daily progress made on his application, names of the officials, who were supposed to act on his application and what action would be taken against these officials for their inaction. Within a week of filing application under the Right to Information Act, he was visited by an inspector from the Food Department, who informed him that the card had been made and he could collect it from the office. When Nannu went to collect his card next day, he was given a very warm treatment by the Food & Supply Officer (FSO), who is the head of a Circle. The FSO offered him tea and requested him to withdraw his application under the Right to Information, since his work had already been done.

What does Nannu’s example show? What impact did Nannu’s action have on officials? Ask your parents their experiences when they approach government officials to attend to their problems.

Answer: Nannu’s example shows that government officials shun away from their duties and look for all possible excuses to get rid of their work. It’s because they have job security. Usually they work when they get pressure from their seniors or they get fear of losing job or some action being taken against them, as it happened in Nannu’s case.

“Once my parents also went to a government hospital to take my grandmother to the doctor, where the doctors were gossiping and having a tea party with their colleagues and the patients were waiting for long for them. My father got really upset seeing all that. He went inside the C.E.O. room and complained against all the doctors who were not doing duties properly and immediately a meeting was called and strict action was taken against them”.

More study materials for CBSE Class 10

NCERT Solutions for Class 10CBSE Notes for Class 10
CBSE Sample Papers for Class 10Important Questions for Class 10
RS Aggarwal Solutions For Class 10RD Sharma Solutions For Class 10

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