# NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Development

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Economics Chapter 1 Development help students to score good marks in the exams. These NCERT Solutions are prepared by expert teachers and based on the latest pattern and edition NCERT book. Here we have provided answers to all the questions in a very easy language.

## Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Development Questions and Answers

EXERCISES

Question 1. Development of a country can generally be determined by

(i) its per capita income
(ii) its average literacy level
(iii) Health status of its people
(iv) all the above

Explanation: UNDP publishes its human development report comparing the countries on the basis of educational level of the people, their health status and per capita income.

Question 2. Which of the following neighbouring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India?

(ii) Sri Lanka
(iii) Nepal
(iv) Pakistan

Explanation: As per Human Development (HDI) Report 2021-22, HDI of Sri Lanka is 73 which is much better than Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan which have 129,143 and 161 respectively. India’s rank is 132 out of 191 countries.

Question 3. Assume there are four families in a country. The average per capita income of these families is ₹ 5000. If the income of three families is ₹ 4000, ₹ 7000 and ₹ 3000 respectively, what is the income of the fourth family?

(i) ₹ 7500
(ii) ₹ 3000
(iii) ₹ 2000
(iv) ₹ 6000

Explanation: Average per capita income = sum of income of all families / Number of families

Question 4. What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any?

Answer: Per Capita Income is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries. The limitations of this criterion are:

• Per capita income doesn’t account for how income is distributed within a country.
• This measure ignores other aspects of development like health, education, life expectancy, and quality of life, which are not directly related to income but are crucial for evaluating the overall well-being of a population.
• Per capita income does not consider cultural and social dimensions, which can influence a country’s development status.
• It also ignores environmental sustainability, which is increasingly important in assessing long-term developmental success.

Question 5. In what respects is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?

Answer: The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) uses the Human Development Index (HDI) to measure development, which includes health (measured by life expectancy), education (assessed by years of schooling), and standard of living (indicated by income per person). This method offers a comprehensive view of development, considering not just economic factors but also health and education.

On the other hand, the World Bank focuses primarily on income per person to measure development. It classifies countries based on their income levels, such as low-income or high-income countries, emphasizing the economic aspect of development.

Thus, while the UNDP’s approach is broader, encompassing health, education, and income, the World Bank’s criterion is mainly centred on the economic status of countries.

Question 6. Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development.

Answer: In development, averages are used for simplifying complex data and making comparisons between groups or countries. For instance, average income provides a quick view of a country’s economic status and comparing average literacy rates can highlight areas that need more educational resources.

However, using averages comes with limitations. Averages can hide variations within the data. For example, an average income might hide the income inequality present in a country. A high average income doesn’t necessarily mean that wealth is evenly distributed; a small wealthy population can skew the average. Sometimes averages do not represent all segments of a population. For example, if we look at the average years of schooling in a country, it might not reveal that certain minority groups have significantly less access to education.

Question 7. Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Maharashtra. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss.

Answer: No, I do not agree with the statement that per capita income is not a useful criterion at all. Kerala, with lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Maharashtra because, human development ranking is determined using a combination of factors such as health, education, and income. So, this does not imply that per capita income is not useful. Rather, per capita income is one of the development factors and can not be neglected. But, per capita income, while important, should not be the sole criterion for comparing states’ development. While per capita income reflects economic status, it doesn’t capture the overall quality of life or social progress.

Question 8. Find out the present sources of energy that are used by the people in India. What could be the other possibilities fifty years from now?

Answer: The present sources of energy that are used by the people of India are coal, crude oil, natural gas, cow dung and renewable sources like solar and wind energy. At present, consumption of energy in India is too high in comparison to its production and reserves. So fifty years into the future, renewable energy sources will play an even more significant role. Some of them are ethanol, bio-diesel, nuclear energy and better utilisation of wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, hydrogen energy, tidal energy, wave energy, hydroelectric energy and biomass energy.

Question 9. Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?

Answer: The issue of sustainability is crucial for development because it focuses on meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable development ensures that we use resources in a way that maintains their availability in the future. It encompasses environmental, economic, and social dimensions, emphasizing that development should not lead to environmental degradation, depletion of natural resources, or social disparity. This approach is vital for long-term economic growth and for maintaining the ecological balance on which all life depends. It also addresses issues of equity and justice, ensuring that the benefits of development are shared by all sections of society, including future generations.

Question 10. “The Earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person”. How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development? Discuss.

Answer: This statement highlights the concept of sustainable development, emphasizing the need to balance human needs with the planet’s ecological capacity. It suggests that while Earth’s resources are sufficient to fulfill the basic needs of all humanity, they are not inexhaustible to cater to unlimited wants or greed. This is relevant to development discussions as it shows the importance of using resources wisely and equitably. Sustainable development aims to ensure that resource use meets the needs of the present without compromising future generations’ ability to meet their own needs, promoting a more equitable and environmentally responsible approach to development.

Question 11. List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you.

• Deforestation
• Falling levels of groundwater
• Depletion of the ozone layer and combustion from automobiles causing extreme air pollution
• Water Pollution, Noise Pollution
• Waste Accumulation

Question 12. For each of the items given in Table 1.6, find out which country is at the top and which is at the bottom.

(i) Gross national income (GNI) Per Capita: Top countrySrilanka with \$12,707; Bottom country – Nepal with \$3457.

(ii) Life Expectancy at birth: Top country – Sri Lanka has 77; Bottom country – Myanmar has 67.1.

(iii) Mean Years of schooling of people aged 25 and above: Top country – Sri Lanka – 10.6; Bottom country – Myanmar and Nepal – 5.0.

(iv) According to the HDI Rank in the world: Top country – Sri Lanka ranks73; Bottom country – Pakistan – 154.

Question 13.  The following table shows the proportion of adults (aged 15-49 years) whose BMI is below normal (BMI <18.5 kg/m2) in India. It is based on a survey of various states for the year 2015-16. Look at the table and answer the following questions.

(i) Compare the nutritional level of people in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh.

(ii) Can you guess why around one-fifth of people in the country are undernourished even though there is enough food in the country? Describe in your own words.

Answer: (i) The nutritional level of people of Kerala is quite higher than the people – both males and females of Madhya Pradesh. Their ratio of the under-nourished is less than that of Madhya Pradesh i.e., more per cent of males and females are undernourished in Madhya Pradesh.

(ii) There is enough food in the country, even though one-fifth of the people in the country are undernourished because:

• A large number of people are so poor that they cannot afford nutritious food.
• In most of the states, the Public Distribution System (PDS) does not function properly and the poor people cannot get food items at cheaper rates.
• There is a lack of educational and health facilities in many parts of the country. So many people remain backward and poor. As such, they are unable to get nutritious food.

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