NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Mineral and Energy Resources

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 5: Mineral and Energy Resources help students to score good marks in the exams. These NCERT Solutions are prepared by expert teachers and based on the latest pattern and edition NCERT book. Here we have provided answers to all the questions in a very easy language.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Mineral and Energy Resources Questions and Answers

Question 1: Multiple choice questions

(i) Which one of the following minerals is formed by decomposition of rocks, leaving aresidual mass of weathered material?

(a) coal
(b) bauxite
(c) gold
(d) zinc

Answer: (b) bauxite

(ii) Koderma, in Jharkhand is the leading producer of which one of the following minerals?

(a) bauxite
(b) mica
(c) iron ore
(d) copper

Answer: (b) mica

(iii) Minerals are deposited and accumulated in the stratas of which of the following rocks?

(a) sedimentary rocks
(b) metamorphic rocks
(c) igneous rocks
(d) none of the above

Answer: (a) sedimentary rocks

(iv) Which one of the following minerals is contained in the Monazite sand?

(a) oil  
(b) uranium
(c) thorium            
(d) coal

Answer: (c) thorium

Question 2: Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

(i) Distinguish between the following in not more than 30 words.
(a) Ferrous and non-ferrous minerals
(b) Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy.


(a) Minerals containing iron are called ferrous minerals, e.g., iron ore and manganese. Minerals which do not contain iron are called non-ferrous minerals, e.g., bauxite, lead and gold.

(b) Conventional sources of energy are generally exhaustible and polluting, e.g., firewood, coal and petroleum. Non – conventional sources of energy are usually inexhaustible and non-polluting, e.g., solar, wind, tidal and atomic energy.

(ii) What is a mineral?

Answer: A mineral is a homogeneous, naturally occurring inorganic solid substance with a definite chemical composition and crystalline structure. Minerals are formed by a combination of elements. Minerals have various physical properties, including hardness, colour, lustre, and cleavage.

(iii) How are minerals formed in igneous and metamorphic rocks?

Answer: Minerals in igneous rocks form as magma cools and solidifies, crystallizing into minerals. In metamorphic rocks, pre-existing rocks transform under heat and pressure, creating new minerals.

(iv) Why do we need to conserve mineral resources?

Answer: We need to conserve mineral resources because they are finite and non-renewable. Over-exploitation can deplete these valuable resources, leading to shortages and increased environmental damage. Conservation ensures sustainable use for future generations and reduces environmental degradation.

3: Answer the following questions in about 120 words.

(i) Describe the distribution of coal in India.

Answer: Coal is unevenly distributed in India, with major coalfields located in various regions:

  1. Gondwana Coalfields: These are the oldest (200 million years old) coalfields, primarily located in eastern India, including Jharkhand, West Bengal, and parts of Chhattisgarh. They account for the majority of India’s coal production.
  2. Tertiary Coalfields: These coalfields are relatively younger (55 million years old) and are found in the northeastern states of Assam, Meghalaya, and Arunachal Pradesh.
  3. Lignite Coalfields: Lignite, a lower-grade coal, is found in Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Rajasthan.
  4. Coastal Coalfields: Small coal reserves are located along the coastlines of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Maharashtra.

The Gondwana coalfields are the most significant, contributing to the majority of coal production in India. These coal reserves are vital for energy generation and industrial development in the country.

(ii) Why do you think that solar energy has a bright future in India?

Answer: Being a tropical country, India has an abundance of sunlight. Hence, there are huge possibilities of tapping solar energy. Solar energy has a bright future in India due to several factors:

  1. Abundant Sunlight: India receives abundant sunlight throughout the year, providing a vast potential for solar energy generation.
  2. Government Support: The Indian government strongly supports solar energy through initiatives like the National Solar Mission, aiming to increase solar capacity and promote its use.
  3. Decreasing Costs: The cost of solar technology is steadily decreasing, making it more accessible and economically viable.
  4. Energy Demand: India’s growing energy needs, coupled with the need to reduce dependence on fossil fuels, make solar energy an attractive alternative.
  5. Environmental Concerns: With increasing awareness of environmental issues, solar energy is a sustainable and clean energy source that helps reduce carbon emissions.
  6. Rural Electrification: Solar energy offers a solution for electrifying remote and rural areas where grid connectivity is challenging.

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