NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe help students to score good marks in the exams. These NCERT Solutions are prepared by expert teachers and based on the latest pattern and edition NCERT book. Here we have provided answers to all the questions in a very easy language.

Class 10 History Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe free PDF

BookNCERT Class 10 History
Chapter 1The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
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Question 1: Write a note on:

(a) Guiseppe Mazzini
(b) Count Camillo de Cavour
(c) The Greek war of independence
(d) Frankfurt parliament
(e) The role of women in nationalist struggles


(a) Guiseppe Mazzini: Giuseppe Mazzini was a key Italian leader born in 1805. He wanted to unite Italy, which was divided into several small states. In 1831, he started “Young Italy,” a group aimed at creating a free, united Italian nation. His ideas were new and focused on democracy which was a radical idea at the time. Mazzini lived in exile because of his beliefs but kept working for a united Italy. He inspired many, although he didn’t see Italy unite in his lifetime. Italy became one country in 1861, and Mazzini is remembered as a hero for his fight for freedom and unity.

(b) Count Camillo de Cavour: Of the seven states of Italy, only Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house. When the revolutionary uprisings of 1831 and 1848 failed to unite Italy, the responsibility to establish a unified Italy fell upon this Italian state. King Victor Emmanuel II was its ruler and Cavour was the Chief Minister. Cavour was a master of diplomatic strategy, aligning Sardinia with powerful European nations through skillful negotiations. His most notable achievement was forming an alliance with France to expel Austrian influence from Northern Italy, a key step towards unification. Unlike Mazzini, Cavour was a moderate who sought unification under a constitutional monarchy rather than a republic. His pragmatism, political savvy, and vision were instrumental in the creation of a unified Italy in 1861. Cavour’s legacy is that of a shrewd politician and architect of Italian unification.

(c) The Greek war of independence: The Greek War of Independence, from 1821 to 1829, was when Greece fought to be free from the Ottoman Empire. Greeks wanted their own country, inspired by new ideas about freedom and rights that were spreading in Europe. Important Greek leaders like Theodoros Kolokotronis and Alexander Ypsilantis helped lead this fight. Many people in Europe liked the Greeks’ fight for freedom, and countries like Britain, France, and Russia decided to help. Their help was very important. After many battles and efforts, Greece finally became an independent country. This was officially recognized in 1830 with the Treaty of London. This war is a big part of Greece’s history.

(d) Frankfurt parliament: The Frankfurt Parliament, starting in May 1848 and lasting until 1849, was an important event in German history. It was the first time a parliament was elected by people across different German states, meeting in Frankfurt’s St. Paul’s Church. The members, mostly middle-class professionals, wanted to unite the various German states into a single country and create a constitution. They debated whether to include Austria in this new Germany, eventually deciding against it. The group proposed Prussia’s king to lead the united Germany, but he refused in April 1849. The parliament struggled with disagreements and lack of support from powerful states. It disbanded in 1849, unable to achieve its goal of unifying Germany. This meeting was a significant early attempt at democracy in Germany.

(e) The role of women in nationalist struggles: In nationalist struggles, women played key roles but often received less recognition. They engaged in revolutionary activities as fighters, spies, and organizers, like Rani Lakshmibai in India’s independence movement. Women also led political advocacy, organizing protests and mobilizations, exemplified by figures like Winnie Mandela in South Africa’s anti-apartheid struggle. Symbolically, they represented national ideals, like Marianne in France. Their support roles were crucial, providing medical care, logistics, and maintaining the domestic front. Women also contributed intellectually as writers and artists, fueling nationalist sentiments. Post-independence, they continued to shape nation-building. However, their contributions were frequently marginalized, highlighting the need for greater recognition of their roles in the history of nationalist movements.

Question 2: What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?

Answer: The French Revolutionaries fostered a collective French identity through:

  1. Symbols: Introduced new symbols like the tricolor flag and Phrygian cap to represent unity and liberty.
  2. National Anthem: “La Marseillaise,” composed in 1792, became the national anthem, stirring patriotic feelings and unity among the French.
  3. New Calendar and Festivals: Implemented a new calendar and national festivals to celebrate revolutionary ideals.
  4. Language Standardization: Worked to standardize the French language, reducing regional dialects.
  5. Secularization: Reduced the church’s influence, promoting secular values.
  6. Education Reforms: Established public education to instill nationalistic and revolutionary ideals.
  7. Legal Uniformity: Introduced the Napoleonic Code for a unified legal system.
  8. Promoting Ideals: Emphasized the values of liberty, equality, and fraternity.

These steps were aimed at replacing regional and monarchical loyalties with a unified national identity.

Question 3: Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?

Answer: Marianne and Germania were symbols of France and Germany. Marianne, often seen in a Phrygian cap, represented liberty and the French Republic’s ideals. Germania symbolized German unification and strength, depicted with a crown and sword. Their portrayals were important for inspiring nationalism, offering visual representations of national identity and virtues. These figures helped rally people around national causes, embodying the spirit and aspirations of their respective nations.

Question 4: Briefly trace the process of German unification.

Answer: The process of German unification, completed in 1871, involved several key steps:

  1. Zollverein (1834): This economic union dismantled tariff barriers between various German states, fostering economic integration and a shared identity among German-speaking people.
  2. 1848 Revolutions: Failed liberal revolutions across German states highlighted the desire for national unity and liberal reforms.
  3. Bismarck’s Leadership (From 1862): Otto von Bismarck, the Prussian Prime Minister, played a crucial role in unification. He pursued a policy of “blood and iron,” using war as a tool to achieve political goals.
  4. Wars of Unification: Bismarck orchestrated three wars – against Denmark (1864), Austria (1866), and France (1870-71) – which were instrumental in unifying the German states under Prussian leadership.
  5. Proclamation of the German Empire (1871): Following the victory against France in the Franco-Prussian War, the German Empire was proclaimed in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles, with the Prussian King Wilhelm I becoming the German Emperor.

These steps, combining diplomatic strategy, economic policies, and military conquest, led to the formation of a unified German state under Prussian dominance.


Germany became one country in 1871, but it took many steps to get there. In 1834, German states joined an economic group called the Zollverein, which helped them work together in business. This made the people in these states feel closer to each other.

In 1848, people in Germany tried to unite the country through big protests, but they didn’t succeed right away. The real push for unification came with a leader named Otto von Bismarck from Prussia, starting in 1862. Bismarck thought fighting wars would help bring Germany together. He led Prussia in wars against Denmark, Austria, and France between 1864 and 1871. These wars made Prussia stronger and helped join the German states.

In the end, after Prussia won against France, Germany was officially formed as one country in a place called Versailles in France. The King of Prussia was made the first Emperor of this new Germany. So, Germany’s unification happened because of shared business interests, wars, and strong leadership from Prussia.

Question 5: What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?

Answer: Napoleon introduced several changes to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him. He formulated the Civil Code of 1804, also known  as the Napoleonic Code. It did away with privileges based on birth. This law established equality before law, and also secured the right to property. Napoleon shortened administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system, and freed peasants from manorial dues and serfdom. Transport and communications were improved too.


Question 1: Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?

Answer: The 1848 Revolutions, often referred to as the “Spring of Nations,” were a series of liberal and nationalist uprisings across Europe. They were fueled by the desire for political, social, and economic reforms. The liberals, who were mainly from the educated middle class alongside the revolts of the poor, unemployed and starving peasants and workers led these revolutions. While in countries like France, food shortages and widespread unemployment during 1848 led to popular uprisings, in other parts of Europe (such as Germany, Italy, Poland and the Austro-Hungarian Empire), men and women of the liberal middle classes came together to voice their demands for the creation of nation-states based on parliamentary principles

Political Ideas: Liberals sought constitutional government, representative democracy, and national unification. They wanted to limit the powers of monarchs and establish elected parliaments, ensuring people’s participation in governance.

Social Ideas: The liberals advocated for civil liberties such as freedom of speech, press, and assembly. They aimed to dismantle the rigid class hierarchies that characterized the old social order, promoting equality and justice.

Economic Ideas: Economically, liberals supported free-market policies. They wanted to reduce state intervention in the economy, promoting industrial growth and free trade. They believed in the importance of property rights and the protection of individual economic freedoms.

These revolutions, while largely unsuccessful in achieving immediate change, sparked a wave of liberal and nationalistic movements across Europe and played a significant role in shaping modern European history.

Question 2: Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.

Answer: The contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe is evident in several key examples:

  1. Folklore and Folk Songs: In many European regions, collecting and popularizing folk songs, stories, and traditions played a vital role in fostering a sense of shared heritage and national identity. For instance, the Brothers Grimm collected German folk tales, which emphasized a unique German cultural identity.
  2. Language and Literature: The emphasis on vernacular languages and national literature was crucial in building national consciousness. In Poland, Adam Mickiewicz’s poetry, especially works like “Pan Tadeusz,” evoked national spirit and pride, uniting Poles under a common cultural banner. Similarly, Dante’s “Divine Comedy” was instrumental in promoting the Italian language and identity.
  3. Classical Music and National Anthems: Composers like Chopin in Poland and Verdi in Italy used music to express nationalistic feelings. Their compositions became symbols of national resistance and unity. National anthems, often based on popular or folk melodies, played a significant role in building a sense of common identity and solidarity among people.

These cultural elements – folklore, literature, and music – were not just expressions of existing national sentiments but also active tools in creating and strengthening national consciousness among the European populace. They provided a sense of shared past, common values, and collective aspirations, crucial for the growth of nationalism.

Question 3: Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.

Answer: In the nineteenth century, nations like Germany and Italy developed through a mix of cultural movements, political actions, and military campaigns.

Germany started as a collection of independent states, with a growing sense of unity based on shared language and cultural heritage. The Zollverein in 1834, an economic union, began fostering economic cooperation, setting the stage for political unity. The 1848 Revolutions, calling for a unified nation, were a turning point despite their initial failure. The unification became a reality under Otto von Bismarck, the Prussian Prime Minister, who used a series of wars against Denmark, Austria, and France to bring the German states together, culminating in the formation of the German Empire in 1871.

Italy, similarly fragmented, was influenced by cultural movements emphasizing a common Italian heritage. Nationalist figures like Giuseppe Mazzini inspired revolutionary efforts for unification. Key players in the actual unification were Count Camillo di Cavour of Sardinia, who used diplomacy, and Giuseppe Garibaldi, who led military expeditions. In 1861, the Kingdom of Italy was officially proclaimed, although it took a few more years to include Rome and Venice.

Both countries’ paths to nationhood demonstrate how shared culture and history, combined with determined leadership and strategic military actions, were fundamental in shaping modern nation-states in Europe.

Question 4: How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?

Answer: The history of nationalism in Britain was notably different from the rest of Europe in several ways:

  1. Early Unification and State Formation: Unlike countries like Germany and Italy, which unified in the 19th century, Britain had been a united kingdom since the early 1700s. The Acts of Union between England, Scotland, and later Ireland, formed the United Kingdom. This early unification meant that Britain didn’t experience the late 19th-century nationalist movements that were common in continental Europe.
  2. Imperialism and National Identity: British nationalism was closely tied to its empire and colonial dominance. The sense of national pride and identity was often linked with the country’s imperial achievements and global influence, rather than the unification struggles that defined nationalism in places like Germany and Italy.
  3. Internal Stability: Britain had a relatively stable political structure with constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy. The political reforms in Britain, like the Reform Acts, were gradual and did not involve large-scale revolutionary upheaval as seen in other European countries.
  4. Industrial Revolution: The early and rapid industrialization of Britain also played a role in shaping its national identity. The economic and social changes brought by industrialization fostered a different kind of national consciousness, focused on Britain’s role as an industrial and global economic power.

In summary, Britain’s early unification, imperial endeavors, political stability, and industrial advancement set its nationalist history apart from the typical patterns of nationalist movements in 19th-century Europe.

Question 5: Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?

Answer: Nationalist tensions in the Balkans arose due to a mix of ethnic diversity, the decline of the Ottoman Empire, and intervention by European powers. The region was home to many different ethnic groups, each with its own nationalist ambitions. As the Ottoman Empire weakened, these groups saw chances to gain independence or expand their territories, often clashing with each other. Major European powers like Austria-Hungary and Russia also played a role, supporting different nationalist movements for their own interests. This complex mix of internal aspirations and external influences made the Balkans a hotspot for nationalist conflicts, ultimately contributing to the outbreak of World War I in 1914.

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