NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 History Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World help students to score good marks in the exams. These NCERT Solutions are prepared by expert teachers and based on the latest pattern and edition NCERT book. Here we have provided answers to all the questions in a very easy language.

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Chapter 3The Making of a Global World
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Question 1: Give two examples of different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century, choosing one example from Asia and one from the Americas.

Answer:  Examples of the different types of global exchanges which took place before the seventeenth century:

  • From Asia: Textiles, spices, and Chinese pottery were traded by China, India, and Southeast Asia. In return, these regions received gold and silver from Europe.
  • From America: Gold and foods such as potatoes, soya, groundnuts, tomatoes and chillies were first exported from the Americas to Europe.


Before the seventeenth century, global exchanges were already vibrant, with different types of interactions between various parts of the world. Here are two examples:

  1. Asia (Silk Road Trade): A significant example from Asia is the Silk Road trade networks. These were not just single routes but a vast network of trade paths connecting China with the Middle East, Europe, and parts of North and East Africa. They facilitated the exchange of goods like silk, spices, tea, and porcelain from Asia. Beyond tangible goods, the Silk Road was also pivotal in the exchange of ideas, cultures, technologies, and even religions, like Buddhism, which spread from India to East Asia.
  2. Americas (Columbian Exchange): In the Americas, a major example is the Columbian Exchange, which began after Christopher Columbus’ arrival in the New World (America). This exchange involved the transfer of plants, animals, foods, human populations (including slaves), diseases, and culture between the American and Afro-Eurasian hemispheres. From the Americas, goods like tomatoes, potatoes, maize, and tobacco were introduced to the rest of the world. In return, the Americas received wheat, sugar, coffee, horses, and diseases like smallpox, which had devastating effects on the indigenous populations.

These examples show that global exchanges before the seventeenth century were dynamic and had profound impacts on the societies involved, shaping their economies, cultures, and even their biological environments.

Question 2: Explain how the global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonisation of the Americas.

Answer: The global transfer of diseases like smallpox, measles, and influenza from Europeans to the indigenous populations in the Americas played a crucial role in the colonization of the Americas. These diseases, to which the native peoples had no immunity, spread rapidly and caused massive population declines, reducing some indigenous populations by up to 90%. This drastic decrease weakened indigenous societies, disrupted their social structures, and made it easier for European colonizers to take control. The depopulation also led to a labour shortage, contributing to the growth of the transatlantic slave trade, as Europeans increasingly brought African slaves to the Americas. In short, disease transfer was a significant factor in enabling European domination in the Americas.

Question 3: Write a note to explain the effects of the following:

(a) The British government’s decision to abolish the Corn Laws.
(b) The coming of rinderpest to Africa.
(c) The death of men of working-age in Europe because of the World War.
(d) The Great Depression on the Indian economy.
(e) The decision of MNCs to relocate production to Asian countries.


(a) Abolition of the Corn Laws in Britain: The decision by the British government in 1846 to abolish the Corn Laws, which had imposed high tariffs on imported grain, had several significant effects. It marked a shift towards free trade policies, leading to lower food prices in Britain. While this benefited consumers, especially the urban working class, by making bread and other staples more affordable, it adversely affected domestic grain producers who faced competition from cheaper imports. The move also spurred agricultural innovation in Britain and was a key factor in the political decline of the landed aristocracy, as it shifted economic power towards industrialists and urban interests.

(b) Rinderpest in Africa: The arrival of rinderpest in Africa in the 1890s devastated cattle herds, a crucial resource for many African societies. This cattle plague led to severe economic disruption and famine, weakening the affected communities. It also made it easier for European powers to colonize these weakened societies, as their resistance was significantly diminished. The loss of cattle drastically changed agricultural and social structures across the continent.

(c) Death of Working-Age Men in Europe Due to World War I: The massive loss of men during World War I had a profound impact on the demographic balance and workforce in Europe. It led to a significant labor shortage, changing employment patterns (including increased participation of women in the workforce), and impacted the post-war economic recovery.

(d) Great Depression on the Indian Economy: The Great Depression of the 1930s had a severe impact on India’s economy, then under British rule. It caused a sharp decline in agricultural prices and exports, leading to widespread distress among farmers. Between 1928 and 1934, it reduced Indian imports and exports by nearly half. Wheat prices too fell by 50% during this time. This economic hardship worsened the struggle against colonial rule and fueled the Indian independence movement. The depression also resulted in an industrial slowdown and job losses, further straining the Indian economy.

(e) MNCs Relocating Production to Asia: The decision of Multinational Corporations (MNCs) to relocate production to Asian countries in recent decades has had significant economic impacts. It has contributed to rapid industrialization in these countries, created jobs, and helped in the transfer of technology. However, it also raised concerns about labor standards, environmental impact, and led to economic restructuring in the regions where these MNCs previously operated.

Question 4: Give two examples from history to show the impact of technology on food availability.

Answer: Two historical examples demonstrating the impact of technology on food availability are:

(i) Improvement in Transportation Systems: Developments such as faster railways, lighter wagons, and larger ships significantly enhanced the efficiency of transporting food. These advancements enabled quicker and more cost-effective movement of food from farms and production sites to markets, greatly improving food availability and distribution, even to remote areas.

(ii) Refrigerated Ships: The advent of refrigerated ships revolutionized the transport of perishable items like meat, butter, and eggs. This technology allowed for long-distance transportation of these foods without spoilage, greatly expanding the range and availability of fresh produce to various parts of the world, and diversifying diets.

Question 5: What is meant by the Bretton Woods Agreement?

Answer: The Bretton Woods Agreement was a 1944 agreement between 44 countries to create a global currency exchange regime based on the U.S. dollar and gold. The agreement required a currency peg to the U.S. dollar which was in turn pegged to the price of gold. The Bretton Woods Agreement also created two important organizations— the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank to help stabilize and support international trade and finance. While the Bretton Woods System was dissolved in the 1970s, both the IMF and World Bank have remained strong pillars for the exchange of international currencies.


Question 6: Imagine that you are an indentured Indian labourer in the Caribbean. Drawing from the details in this chapter, write a letter to your family describing your life and feelings.

Answer: Indentured Indian labourers in the Caribbean—facts—signed a contract stating that they would return to India after working for five years at a plantation; belonged to eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, central India and the dry districts of Tamil Nadu; migrants took up the overseas jobs hoping to escape poverty and oppression in their home villages; migrants were not even informed about the long sea voyages, and some unwilling ones were abducted as well; also known as “the new system of slavery”; harsh living and working conditions; few legal rights; many escaped into the wilds; some developed new art forms for expression; some returned home after the contract period, while others stayed on

Question 7: Explain the three types of movements or flows within international economic exchange. Find one example of each type of flow which involved India and Indians, and write a short account of it.

Answer: In international economic exchange, there are three primary types of movements or flows:

  1. Goods and Services Flow: This is about trading products and services between countries. For example, India is famous for its IT (Information Technology) services. Many companies in the USA and Europe hire Indian companies for IT work, like making software. Companies like Infosys and Tata Consultancy Services are leaders in this domain, providing software development, IT support, and consulting services.
  2. Financial Flow: This includes the movement of capital across borders in the form of investments, loans, and aid. An example is foreign direct investment (FDI) in India. Over the past decades, India has attracted significant FDI from multinational corporations in sectors like telecommunications, automobile, and pharmaceuticals. This influx of foreign capital has contributed to economic growth and job creation in India.
  3. Labor or Human Resource Flow: This is about people moving to other countries for work. Many Indians work abroad, especially in the Middle East, the USA, and Europe. For instance, there are lots of Indian workers in Gulf countries doing various jobs, and the money they send back home helps India’s economy.

These flows are crucial for global economic interaction and have been instrumental in shaping India’s economy and its role in the international market.

Question 8: Explain the causes of the Great Depression

Answer: The Great Depression of the 1930s had various causes:

  1. Stock Market Crash: The 1929 Wall Street Crash saw the stock market lose value rapidly, wiping out investments. This sudden loss of wealth had a domino effect on consumer spending and business investments.
  2. Bank Failures: Numerous bank failures occurred due to both the stock market crash and widespread loans not being repaid. People lost their savings, and banks couldn’t provide loans, leading to a credit squeeze.
  3. Reduced Consumer Spending: The fear of further economic decline led to reduced consumer spending. This drop in demand had a cascading effect on businesses, causing layoffs and reduced production.
  4. Global Economic Issues: Protectionist policies, such as tariffs like the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act, hindered international trade and worsened the global economic situation.
  5. Agricultural Crisis: The Dust Bowl and drought conditions in the agricultural heartland led to crop failures and forced many farmers into poverty.
  6. Monetary Policies: Central banks’ inability to respond effectively, partly due to adherence to the gold standard, restricted their ability to increase the money supply, which could have helped ease the crisis.

These interconnected factors contributed to the Great Depression, creating a complex economic downturn that had far-reaching consequences worldwide.

Question 9: Explain what is referred to as the G-77 countries. In what ways can G-77 be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods twins?


Answer: The “G-77” refers to a group of developing countries that formed a coalition to promote their collective economic interests within the United Nations. The group was established on June 15, 1964, in Geneva. Originally, the group had 77 founding members, which is how it got its name, but it has since expanded to include 134 member countries, making it the largest coalition of developing nations in the UN.

The G-77 serves as a counterbalance to these institutions, advocating for the interests of developing countries. It focuses on more equitable economic policies, fairer trade practices, and increased development assistance, contrasting with the market-driven approaches of the Bretton Woods twins (the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank). The group emphasizes the need for a more balanced global economic system that better addresses the needs and concerns of developing nations.

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