NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 3 Agriculture

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Agriculture contain solutions to the exercises given in the Geography book Resources and Development. These answers have been explained in a manner that you will easily understand all the concepts and get your doubts cleared without even seeking anyone’s assistance. You can read and download all the questions and answers in PDF format.

Class 8 Geography Agriculture Ncert Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1. Answer the following questions.

(i) What is agriculture?

Answer: Agriculture is a primary activity that includes growing crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers, and rearing livestock. It is essentially the science and art of cultivating the soil, raising crops, and feeding, breeding, and raising livestock.

(ii) Name the factors influencing agriculture?

Answer: The factors influencing agriculture include:

  • Soil quality and climate.
  • Water availability.
  • Farming technology.
  • Quality seeds and fertilizers.
  • Market access.
  • Government policies.

(iii) What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages?

Answer: Shifting cultivation or slash-and-burn cultivation is a type of farming activity in which a plot of land is cleared by cutting down trees and burning them. The ashes are then mixed with the soil and crops are grown. After the land has lost its fertility, it is abandoned. The farmers then move to a new place.

Disadvantages of shifting cultivation:

  • Loss of biodiversity due to deforestation.
  • Loss of fertility of a particular land
  • Leads to Soil erosion
  • Burning of trees causes air pollution
  • Crops are cultivated on small plots of land which is insufficient for feeding a large population.

(iv) What is plantation agriculture?

Answer: Plantation agriculture is a type of commercial farming where single crops like tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana, or cotton are grown on large estates. It requires a large amount of labour and capital. The produce is either processed on the farm itself or in nearby factories. Major plantations are found in the tropical regions of the world, like rubber in Malaysia, coffee in Brazil, tea in India and Sri Lanka, etc.

(v) Name the fibre crops and name the climatic conditions required for their growth.

Answer: Fibre crops include cotton and jute.

  • Cotton requires high temperature, light rainfall, 210 frost-free days, and bright sunshine for its growth. It grows best on black and alluvial soils.
  • Jute, known as the ‘Golden Fibre’, grows well on alluvial soil and requires high temperature, heavy rainfall, and a humid climate.

Question 2. Tick the correct answer.

(i) Horticulture means

(a) growing of fruits and vegetables
(b) primitive farming
(c) growing of wheat

Answer: (a) Growing of fruits and vegetables

(ii) Golden fibre refers to

(a) tea
(b) cotton
(c) jute

Solution: (c) Jute

(iii) Leading producers of coffee

(a) Brazil
(b) India
(c) Russia

Answer: (a) Brazil

Question 3. Give reasons.

(i) In India agriculture is a primary activity.

Answer: In India, agriculture is considered a primary activity because it involves the direct extraction and production of natural resources from the environment. This sector contributes significantly to the country’s GDP, providing food, raw materials, and employment to a large portion of the population. Two-thirds of India’s population is dependent upon agriculture where people are engaged in growing crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers and rearing of livestock. Hence, in India, agriculture is a primary activity.

(ii) Different crops are grown in different regions.

Answer: Different crops are grown in different regions due to variations in climate, soil type, water availability etc. Since different regions have different soil types and climatic conditions so, a crop may have favourable factors of growth in a particular region only. For example, rice grows in wet and warm climates typical of tropical and subtropical regions, while wheat grows in cooler temperatures found in temperate zones.

Question 4. Distinguish between the followings.

(i) Primary activities and tertiary activities

Primary activitiesTertiary activities
Connected with the extraction and production of natural resourcesProvide support to the primary and secondary sectors.
Directly dependent on the environment and natural resources.Dependent on the output of primary and secondary activities.
Example: Agriculture, Fishing, Mining etc.Example: Banking, education transport etc.

(ii) Subsistence farming and intensive farming.

Subsistence FarmingIntensive Farming
It is a type of farming that is done by the farmer to meet the needs of his family.It is a type of farming that is done by the farmer to increase the production of crops in a small plot of land so as to earn some profit.
It involves the use of low levels of technology and household labour.It involves the use of simple tools and extra labour.
Mainly staple crops are grown.Wide variety, including high-yield and often genetically modified crops are grown.

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