NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 5 Human Resources

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 5 Human Resources contain solutions to the exercises given in the Geography book Resources and Development. These answers have been explained in a manner that you will easily understand all the concepts and get your doubts cleared without even seeking anyone’s assistance.

Class 8 Geography Human Resources NCERT Textbook Questions and Answers

Question 1. Answer the following questions.

(i) Why are people considered as resource?

Answer: People are considered a resource because it is their abilities, knowledge, and skills that turn natural elements into valuable resources. It is people with their demands and abilities that help in extracting the usefulness of all other resources.

(ii) What are the causes for the uneven distribution of population in the world?

Answer: The distribution of population in the world is uneven. Some areas are very crowded while some are sparsely populated. There are various reasons behind this uneven distribution:

(a) Geographical factors: Favourable topography, availability of mineral and freshwater resources, favourable climate and soil fertility are some of the reasons affecting population distribution.

(b) Social and Cultural factors: Better housing, education, health facilities, places of cultural or religious significance, and industrial areas that offer employment opportunities tend to have higher population densities.

(c) Economic factors: Places having more industries, transportation and communication facilities provide better employment opportunities. People are attracted to these places because of the above reasons e.g., Mumbai, Osaka etc.

(iii) The world population has grown very rapidly. Why?

Answer: The world population has not been stable and has increased manifold due to advancements in science and technology. Science and Technology have increased food production and development in healthcare facilities has helped reduce the death rate.

(iv) Discuss the role of any two factors influencing population change.

Answer: Two key factors influencing population change are:

  1. Birth Rate: The number of births per 1,000 people in a year is called the birth rate. A high birth rate leads to population growth, especially if it exceeds the death rate.
  2. Death Rate: The number of deaths per 1,000 people in a year is called the death rate. Advances in medical care, nutrition, and sanitation have reduced death rates globally, contributing to population growth.

(v) What is meant by population composition?

Answer: Population composition refers to the structure of a population, breaking it down by characteristics such as age, sex, literacy level, health condition, occupation, and income level.

(vi) What are population pyramids? How do they help in understanding about the population of a country?

Answer: Population pyramids, also known as age-sex pyramids, are graphical representations that show the distribution of various age groups in a population, which typically form the shape of a pyramid. These graphs divide the population into males and females on either side and stack different age groups from youngest at the bottom to oldest at the top. These pyramids show the population’s age structure, gender ratio, and potential growth trends. By examining a pyramid, one can tell whether a population is young, ageing, or balanced, aiding in the planning for educational, healthcare, and social services.

Question 2. Tick the correct answer.

(i) Which does the term population distribution refer to?

(a) How population in a specified area changes over time.
(b) The number of people who die in relation to the number of people born in a specified area.
(c) The way in which people are spread across a given area.

Answer: (c) The way in which people are spread across a given area

(ii) Which are three main factors that cause population change?

(a) Births, deaths and marriage
(b) Births, deaths and migration
(c) Births, deaths and life expectancy

Answer: (b) Births, deaths and migration

(iii)  In1999, the world population reached

(a) 1 billion
(b) 3 billion
(c) 6 billion

Answer: (c) 6 billion

(iv) What is a population pyramid?

(a) A graphical presentation of the age, sex composition of a population.
(b) When the population density of an area is so high that people live in tall buildings.
(c) Pattern of population distribution in large urban areas.

Answer: (a) A graphical presentation of the age, sex composition of a population.

Question 3. Complete the sentences below using some of the following words.

(sparsely, favourable, fallow, artificial, fertile, natural, extreme, densely)

When people are attracted to an area, it becomes ………………….. populated, Factors that influence this include ………………….. climate; good supplies of ………………….. resources and ………………….. land.

Answer: When people are attracted to an area, it becomes densely populated, Factors that influence this include favourable climate; good supplies of natural resources and fertile land.

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