NCERT Solutions For Class 8 History Chapter 7 Women, Caste and Reform

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 7 Women, Caste and Reform contain solutions to the exercises given in the History book Our Pasts -III. These answers have been explained in a manner that you will easily understand all the concepts and get your doubts cleared without even seeking anyone’s assistance.

Class 8 History Women, Caste and Reform Questions and Answers

Question 1: What social ideas did the following people support?

Rammohun Roy Dayanand
Veerasalingam Pantulu
Jyotirao Phule
Pandita Ramabai
Mumtaz Ali
Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar


Rammohun Roy: Supported the banning of the practice of ‘Sati’
Dayanand Saraswati: Supported Widow remarriage
Veerasalingam Pantulu: Supported Widow remarriage
Jyotirao Phule: Supported equality among castes
Pandita Ramabai: Supported Women’s Education, Economic Independence for women and set up widow homes
Periyar: Supported equality for untouchables.
Mumtaz Ali: Supported Women’s Education
Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar: Supported Widow remarriage

Question 2: State whether true or false:

(a) When the British captured Bengal they framed many new laws to regulate the rules regarding marriage, adoption, inheritance of property, etc.

Answer: True

(b) Social reformers had to discard the ancient texts in order to argue for reform in social practices.

Answer: False

(c) Reformers got full support from all sections of the people of the country.

Answer: False

(d) The Child Marriage Restraint Act was passed in 1829.

Answer: False

Question 3: How did the knowledge of ancient texts help the reformers promote new laws?

Answer: In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Indian reformers like Raja Rammohun Roy used ancient texts to argue against harmful practices and push for social changes, such as banning sati and promoting women’s rights and education. Movements like the Aligarh and Singh Sabha emphasized modern education while drawing on religious teachings to challenge caste discrimination. These efforts highlighted the importance of the knowledge of ancient texts that helped the reformers promote new laws.

Question 4: What were the different reasons people had for not sending girls to school?

Answer: Different reasons people had for not sending girls to school were as follows:

  • There was a fear that schooling would take girls away from home, preventing them from performing their domestic responsibilities.
  • Girls had to travel through public places to reach school. People believed that this would have a corrupting influence on them.
  • They believed that girls should stay away from public spaces.

Question 5: Why were Christian missionaries attacked by many people in the country? Would some people have supported them too? If so, for what reasons?

Answer: The Christian missionaries were attacked by the people, as they were involved in the religious conversion of poor and tribal people from Hinduism to Christianity. These missionaries had also set up schools for tribal and poor kids to learn. However, the larger section of people who looked down upon the poor people and tribal people did not like the idea of exposing tribal people to education. Hence, the attacks on Christian missionaries started.

However, there were also some people who supported the Christian missionaries. For instance, some people saw the missionaries as bringing much-needed education, healthcare, and social services to their communities. Additionally, some people saw the Christian message as an opportunity for personal growth and spiritual fulfilment.

Question 6: In the British period, what new opportunities opened up for people who came from castes that were regarded as “low”?

Answer: Following new opportunities opened up for people who came from castes that were regarded as low:

  • Schools were established by missionaries and others for tribal and “lower”-caste children.
  • The expansion of cities and the establishment of factories created a demand for labour.
  • The army offered employment opportunities, with certain regiments like the Mahar Regiment composed of individuals from untouchable castes.
  • The demand for labour in plantations in Assam, Mauritius, Trinidad, and Indonesia led to migration opportunities.
  • The economic opportunities afforded by these new jobs and roles allowed individuals from lower castes to improve their economic status.
  • This period also saw the rise of social and religious reform movements that challenged caste discrimination and promoted equality.

Question 7: How did Jyotirao the reformer justify his criticism of caste inequality in society?

Answer: Jyotirao Phule, who stood against caste inequality, believed that the upper castes being ‘Aryans’, were not the original inhabitants of their lands. He claimed that land and power rightfully belonged to these indigenous, or low-caste, communities. He looked forward to the golden age when lower-caste people could live peacefully without the intrusion of upper castes. He also critiqued nationalist movements led by upper castes as serving their own interests, advocating for social equality and justice for all.

Question 8: Why did Phule dedicate his book Gulamgirito the American movement to free slaves?

Answer: Jyotirao Phule wrote Gulamgiri in 1873. It means slavery. While writing this book, he was concerned with all forms of inequalities and injustices existing in society – whether it was the plight of the upper-caste women, the miseries of the labourers, or the humiliation of the low castes. By dedicating his book Gulamgiri to the American movement to free slaves, he linked the conditions of the black slaves in America with those of the “lower” castes in India. This comparison also contains an expression of hope that one day, like the end of slavery in America, there will be an end to all sorts of caste discrimination in Indian society.

Question 9: What did Ambedkar want to achieve through the temple entry movement?

Answer: Dr. B. R. Ambedkar started a temple entry movement in 1927 which was participated by his Mahar caste followers. Brahmin priests were outraged when the lower castes used water from the temple tank. Dr. Ambedkar led three such movements for temple entry between 1927 and 1935. His aim was to make everyone see the power of caste prejudices within society.

Question 10: Why were Jyotirao Phule and Ramaswamy Naicker critical of the national movement? Did their criticism help the national struggle in any way?

Answer: Jyotirao Phule and Ramaswamy Naicker were critical of the national movement because they believed it primarily served the interests of the upper castes, particularly the Brahmans. These movements were not addressing the injustices and discrimination faced by the lower castes. Phule thought that the upper-caste people who wanted to fight against the Britishers would want to rule once the Britishers left. Phule was always against the upper caste people as he called them the ‘outsiders.’

Naicker was a part of the Congress party and his experiences led him to believe that the party was not free from the taint of casteism. So, he was reluctant to take part in the anti-British national movement that was not concerned about creating a caste-less society.

Their criticism helped strengthen the national struggle. Reformists started restructuring their thoughts to get rid of the differences between the upper caste and lower caste. The national struggle became the tool to eradicate caste differences, religious and gender inequality.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *