NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 Climate

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Geography Chapter 4 Climate contains answers to the exercise questions given in ‘Contemporary India’. These solutions will help students for the preparation of CBSE Class 9 SST exam. All the answers are useful for exams as most of the questions are asked from the NCERT textbooks. So, students can study these solutions and score high in their exams.

Class 9 Geography Chapter 4 Climate Questions and Answers

Question 1: Choose the correct answer from the four alternatives given below.

(i) Which one of the following places receives the highest rainfall in the world?

(a) Silchar
(b) Mawsynram
(c) Cherrapunji
(d) Guwahati

Answer: (b) Mawsynram

(ii) The wind blowing in the northern plains in summers is known as:

(a) Kaal Baisakhi
(b) Loo
(c) Trade Winds
(d) None of the above

Answer: (b) Loo

(iii) Monsoon arrives in India approximately in:

(a) Early May
(b) Early July
(c) Early June
(d) Early August

Answer: (c) Early June

(iv) Which one of the following characterises the cold weather season in India?

(a) Warm days and warm nights
(b) Warm days and cold nights
(c) Cool days and cold nights
(d) Cold days and warm nights

Answer: (c) Cool days and cold nights

Question 2: Answer the following questions briefly.

(i) What are the controls affecting the climate of India?

Answer: The climate of India is influenced by six major controls: latitude, altitude, pressure and wind system, distance from the sea (continentality), ocean currents, and relief features.

(ii) Why does India have a monsoon type of climate?

Answer: India has a monsoon climate due to its location in the intertropical convergence zone, the presence of the Himalayas and Western Ghats, seasonal reversal of winds, ocean currents, and the influence of phenomena like El Niño and La Niña.

(iii) Which part of India does experience the highest diurnal range of temperature and why?

Answer: The northwestern part of India experiences the highest diurnal range of temperature. Sometimes temperature occasionally touches 50°C during the day and drops down to near 15°C at night. This happens because of the presence of the Thar Desert and also because this region does not have the moderating influence of the ocean.

(iv) Which winds account for rainfall along the Malabar coast?

Answer: The Southwest Monsoon winds account for rainfall along the Malabar coast. These winds, crossing the equator and turning right due to the Coriolis effect, bring abundant moisture from the warm oceans to the Indian subcontinent, especially affecting the Malabar coast during the monsoon season.

(v) Define monsoons. What do you understand by “break” in monsoon?

Answer: Monsoons refer to the seasonal reversal in wind direction during a year, characterized by a distinct wet and dry phase. A “break” in the monsoon means there are times when it rains for a few days and then stops, leaving dry periods in between.

(vi) Why is the monsoon considered a unifying bond?

Answer: The monsoon is considered a unifying bond because it deeply influences the entire country, affecting its agriculture, festivals, and daily life. Despite the different climates and weather patterns across India, the monsoon season brings rain which is crucial for farming. This season impacts when people plant and harvest crops, and it even affects the festivals they celebrate. The anticipation of the monsoon rains unites people across different regions, as they all depend on this season for water, food, and the health of the land. So, the monsoon helps to bring the country together, creating a shared experience and dependency on its rains.

Question 3: Why does the rainfall decrease from the east to the west in Northern India.

Answer: The rainfall decreases from the east to the west in Northern India primarily due to the presence of the Himalayas and the direction of the monsoon winds. The monsoon winds, loaded with moisture, move from the Bay of Bengal towards the north and northeast where the Himalayas block this wind. Thus, areas like the northeastern part of India receive very high rainfall. As these winds move further westward, their moisture content decreases, leading to less rainfall in the western parts of Northern India.

Question 4: Give reasons as to why.

(i) Seasonal reversal of wind direction takes place over the Indian subcontinent?

Answer: Seasonal reversal of wind direction over the Indian subcontinent takes place due to the differential heating and cooling of the continent and the Indian Ocean. It leads to a shift in pressure zones and results in the reversal of wind directions with the seasons. El Nino has a major role to play in the seasonal reversal of wind direction over the Indian subcontinent.

(ii) The bulk of rainfall in India is concentrated over a few months.

Answer: The monsoon winds, which bring the majority of India’s rainfall, are seasonal. Rainfall is dependent on the South West Monsoon winds that bring moisture-laden winds from the Indian Ocean to the subcontinent from June to September, resulting in a concentrated period of heavy rainfall.

(iii) The Tamil Nadu coast receives winter rainfall.

Answer: The Tamil Nadu coast receives winter rainfall due to the Northeast Monsoon or the Retreating Monsoon. During this season, the winds blow from land to sea, but for the Tamil Nadu coast, these winds blow from the Bay of Bengal, picking up moisture and bringing rainfall to the region. This phenomenon occurs from October to December.

(iv) The delta region of the eastern coast is frequently struck by cyclones.

Answer: The Bay of Bengal is the centre of various pressure changes and hence there is always a chance of the development of cyclones. Due to this, the delta region of the eastern coast is frequently struck by cyclones.

(v) Parts of Rajasthan, Gujarat and the leeward side of the Western Ghats are drought-prone.

Answer: Parts of Rajasthan, Gujarat and the leeward side of the Western Ghats are drought-prone because these areas lie in the rain shadow region of the Aravali Range, receiving less moisture from the monsoon winds, which leads to lower rainfall and drought conditions.

Question 5: Describe the regional variations in the climatic conditions of India with the help of suitable examples.

Answer: In summer, parts of the Rajasthan desert can reach temperatures up to 50°C, while in Jammu and Kashmir may experience around 20°C. In winter, parts of Jammu and Kashmir can have temperatures as low as -45°C, whereas Thiruvananthapuram in Kerala enjoys more moderate conditions around 22°C.

The Thar Desert experiences a wide range between day and night temperatures, soaring to 50°C during the day and dropping to near 15°C at night. In contrast, areas like the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Kerala have lesser temperature differences between night and day.

Most parts of India receive rainfall from June to September during the monsoon season. However, the Tamil Nadu coast gets a significant portion of its rainfall during the northeast monsoon in October and November.

Question 6: Give an account of weather conditions and characteristics of the cold season.

Answer: The cold weather season in India, known as winter, begins from mid-November and lasts till February, with December and January being the coldest months. During this time, the northern plains experience chilly cold weather with temperatures ranging between 10°C and 15°C, whereas regions like Chennai on the eastern coast enjoy a milder climate with temperatures hovering around 24°–25°C. Higher regions like the Himalayas may experience snowfall, whereas frost is common in the north.

This season is predominantly dry for most parts of India, except for the Tamil Nadu coast, which receives rainfall from the northeast trade winds. However, the northern plains witness cyclonic disturbances originating from the Mediterranean Sea and western Asia, which bring much-needed winter rains (locally known as ‘mahawat’) crucial for ‘rabi’ crop cultivation.

The peninsular region does not experience a significant change in temperature pattern during winter, due to the moderating influence of the sea, which keeps the temperatures relatively constant.

Question 7: Give the characteristics and effects of the monsoon rainfall in India.

Answer: Characteristics of the monsoon rainfall in India:

  • The duration of the monsoon varies from 100 to 120 days from early June to mid-September.
  • Around the time of its arrival, the normal rainfall increases suddenly and
  • continues regularly for several days. This is called the ‘burst’ of the monsoon.
  • They are distinguished from the pre-monsoon showers because of their increase in rainfall amount and regularity.
  • The monsoon arrives at the southern tip of the Indian Peninsular generally by the first week of June.
  • The rainfall is unevenly distributed across the country.

Effects of the monsoon rainfall in India:

  • Agriculture in India largely depends on Indian monsoons for water. Late, Low or excessive rains have a negative impact on crops.
  • Due to uneven rainfall distribution across the country, few places are drought-prone and few are flood affected.
  • The monsoon provides India with a diverse climatic pattern. Hence, despite the presence of great regional variations, it has a unifying influence upon the country and its people.

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