NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution are prepared by expert teachers. These solutions contain answers to all exercise questions provided in the History (India and the Contemporary World – I) textbook.

Class 9 History Europe and the Russian Revolution Questions and Answers

Question 1: What were the social, economic and political conditions in Russia before 1905?

Answer: Before 1905, the conditions in Russia were marked by several critical factors:

  1. High Agricultural Dependency: About 85% of Russia’s population was involved in agriculture, much higher than in other European countries.
  2. Industrialization with Poor Conditions: Despite being less industrialized than Western Europe, Russia had industrial areas with factories where working conditions were harsh, wages low, and working hours long.
  3. Social Stratification: Society was deeply divided between the wealthy nobility and the peasants, leading to significant social tensions.
  4. Political Autocracy: Russia was ruled by Tsar Nicholas II with absolute power, lacking any form of political representation or freedom for the general populace.
  5. Economic Challenges: The economy faced issues like inadequate grain supplies leading to tension between the government and peasants.
  6. Nationalist and Revolutionary Movements: There were growing nationalist movements and dissatisfaction with the Tsarist regime, contributing to the revolutionary mood.

These points show that before 1905, Russia was experiencing severe social, economic, and political conditions that paved the way for revolutionary change.

Question 2: In what ways was the working population in Russia different from other countries in Europe, before 1917?

Answer: Before 1917, Russia’s working population was distinct from that of other European countries due to its larger agricultural base, concentrated industrial sectors in few cities, harsher working conditions, and unique practices of land redistribution among peasants, marking a slower and more uneven path to industrialization and modernization.


Before 1917, the Russian working population was markedly different from its European counterparts due to Russia’s delayed and uneven industrialization. Approximately 85% of Russians were engaged in agriculture, significantly higher than in Western Europe, where the figures were closer to 40-50%. Industrial activity was concentrated in a few cities like St. Petersburg and Moscow, with many workers still linked to rural areas. Working conditions were notably harsh, with long hours and low wages. The workforce was socially divided, with distinctions between skilled and unskilled workers, and the unique practice of communal land division among peasants highlighted a distinct socio-economic structure. This context set Russia apart from the more industrially advanced and urbanized societies in Western Europe.

Question 3: Why did the Tsarist autocracy collapse in 1917?

Answer: The Tsarist autocracy in Russia collapsed in 1917 due to economic hardship, military defeats in World War I, political incompetence, and widespread social unrest. Tsar Nicholas II’s failure to address the country’s problems and the government’s inability to manage the war effort or the demands for reform led to a loss of support among the military, peasantry, and urban workers. The February Revolution was sparked by these issues, resulting in the abdication of the Tsar and the end of autocratic rule in Russia.

Question 4: Make two lists: one with the main events and the effects of the February Revolution and the other with the main events and effects of the October Revolution. Write a paragraph on who was involved in each, who were the leaders and what was the influence of each on Soviet history.

Answer: February Revolution:

  • 22nd February: Factory lockout on the right bank took place,
  • 25th February: Duma was dissolved.
  • 27th February: Police Headquarters ransacked. Regiments support the workers. Formation of Soviet.
  • 2nd March: The Tsar abdicated his power. The Soviet and Duma leaders formed a Provisional Government for Russia. 

The February Revolution had no political party at its forefront. It was led by the people themselves. Petrograd had brought down the monarchy, and thus, gained a significant place in Soviet history. Trade Unions grew in number.

October Revolution:

  • 16th October: A Military Revolutionary Committee was appointed by Soviet.
  • 24th October: The uprising against the provisional government begins. Military Revolutionary Committee controls the city by night and ministers surrender. The Bolshevik gained power.

The October Revolution was primarily led by Lenin and his sub-ordinate Trotskii, and involved the masses who supported these leaders. It marked the beginning of Lenin’s rule over the Soviet, with the Bolsheviks under his guidance.

Question 5: What were the main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution?

Answer: The main changes which were brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution:

  • Industries and banks were nationalised by November 1917, Government took over ownership and management.
  • The land was declared as a social property and peasants were allowed to seize the land of the nobility.
  • In the cities, Bolsheviks enforced the partition of large houses according to family requirements.
  • Old titles of the aristocracy were abolished.
  • New uniforms were designed for the army and officials.
  • The Bolshevik Party was renamed the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik)
  • Bolsheviks conducted elections to the constituent assembly, however, they failed to attain the majority, Assembly rejected the Bolshevik measures and Lenin dismissed the assembly.
  • All Russian Congress of Soviets became Parliament of the country. Russia became a one-party state.
  • Trade unions were kept under party control, the Secret Police punished anyone who criticised the Bolsheviks. Many young artists and writers continued to support the Party as it stood for Socialism.
  • Many experiments were done in Arts and Architecture. But many artists were unhappy because of the censorship.

Question 6: Write a few lines to show what you know about:
(i) Kulaks
(ii) The Duma
(iii) Women workers between 1900 and 1930.
(iv) The Liberals.
(v) Stalin’s collectivization programme.

kulaks: Kulaks were wealthier peasants in pre-Soviet Russia, owning substantial land and sometimes employing labourers. Following the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks viewed the kulaks as class enemies due to their relatively prosperous status and resistance to socialist policies like collectivization. During the drive towards collectivization in the late 1920s and early 1930s, the Bolshevik government targeted kulaks for “liquidation as a class,” leading to their dispossession, deportation, or execution. The campaign against kulaks was part of the broader effort to reorganize agriculture into collective farms and eliminate class-based resistance.

The Duma: The Duma was the legislative assembly in the late Russian Empire, created by Tsar Nicholas II in 1905. It was created to calm down people who were unhappy and wanted the government to change. The Duma was like a part of the government where people could talk about and decide on new laws, but the king could still stop any laws he didn’t like and could close the Duma if he wanted to. It was an important place for discussions until 1917 when the new government, led by the Bolsheviks, got rid of it after they took control of Russia.

Women workers between 1900 and 1930: Between 1900 and 1930, women workers in Russia faced lower wages and harsh conditions but were pivotal in industries and protests, including the 1917 February Revolution. Their activism highlighted their emerging social and political awareness. Post-revolution, the Bolsheviks tried to make things better for women at work, but changes were slow and not the same everywhere. Women started to have a bigger voice in work and politics during this time.

The Liberals: The Liberals in Russia before the 1917 revolutions were a political group that wanted to reform the government to make it more democratic without removing the Tsar. They aimed for a constitution, more freedoms for the people, and a parliamentary system where elected officials could make decisions. They played a role in the 1905 Revolution and were part of the Duma, pushing for moderate reforms within the limits of the Tsarist autocracy, but were often frustrated by the Tsar’s resistance to significant changes.

Stalin’s collectivisation programme: Stalin’s collectivization program was a big plan in the late 1920s to early 1930s to bring together small farms into collective farms (kolkhozes) and state farms (sovkhozes). This was to make farming more efficient and help pay for other government projects. Stalin also wanted to get rid of kulaks, the richer farmers, because he thought they were a threat. But this plan caused a lot of problems. Many farmers didn’t like it and killed their animals rather than give them up. This led to a terrible famine, where lots of people didn’t have enough food, especially in Ukraine. Overall, while trying to improve farming and make more food, the plan ended up causing a lot of suffering.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *